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Download Free PDF Notes of Chemical Kinetics for Class 12 Chemistry


Chemical Kinetics Class 12 Notes PDF Free Download




Are you looking for a comprehensive and easy-to-understand guide on chemical kinetics for class 12? If yes, then you have come to the right place. In this article, you will learn everything you need to know about chemical kinetics, which is one of the most important topics in physical chemistry. You will also get a free PDF download of the notes at the end of the article.


Chemical kinetics is the branch of chemistry that deals with the study of the rates of chemical reactions and the factors that affect them. It helps us to understand how fast or slow a reaction occurs, what are the conditions that influence its speed, and what are the steps involved in its mechanism. Chemical kinetics is essential for class 12 students because it helps them to prepare for competitive exams like JEE and NEET, where questions on this topic are frequently asked. It also helps them to appreciate the practical applications of chemistry in various fields like engineering, biology, medicine, and environmental science.




chemical kinetics class 12 notes pdf free download



Factors Affecting the Rate of a Chemical Reaction




The rate of a chemical reaction is defined as the change in concentration of reactants or products per unit time. It can be expressed as:


Rate = -d[R]/dt = d[P]/dt


where [R] and [P] are the concentrations of reactants and products respectively, and t is time.


The rate of a chemical reaction depends on several factors, such as:


Concentration of Reactants




The concentration of reactants is directly proportional to the rate of reaction. This means that as the concentration of reactants increases, the rate of reaction also increases. This is because a higher concentration means more molecules per unit volume, which results in more collisions among them, and hence more chances for a successful reaction.


Temperature




The temperature is also directly proportional to the rate of reaction. This means that as the temperature increases, the rate of reaction also increases. This is because a higher temperature means more kinetic energy for the molecules, which results in faster movement, more collisions, and higher activation energy.


Catalyst




A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of reaction without undergoing any permanent change itself. It does so by providing an alternative pathway for the reaction with lower activation energy. This means that a catalyst lowers the energy barrier for the reaction, which results in more molecules having enough energy to react.


Surface Area




The surface area is also directly proportional to the rate of reaction. This means that as the surface area increases, the rate of reaction also increases. This is because a larger surface area means more exposure of reactants to each other, which results in more collisions and more reactions.


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Rate Law and Order of Reaction




The rate law is an expression that relates the rate of reaction to the concentration of reactants raised to some powers. It can be written as:


Rate = k[R1][R2]...


where k is the rate constant, [R1], [R2], ... are the concentrations of reactants, and m, n, ... are the orders of reaction with respect to each reactant. The overall order of reaction is the sum of the individual orders.


The rate law and the order of reaction can only be determined experimentally. They cannot be predicted from the balanced chemical equation. The order of reaction indicates how sensitive the rate of reaction is to the change in concentration of a reactant.


Definition and Examples of Rate Law and Rate Constant




The rate law is also called the rate equation or the differential rate expression. It shows how the rate of reaction depends on the concentration of reactants at any instant of time. For example, for the reaction:


2NO + O2 2NO2


The rate law is given by:


Rate = k[NO][O2]


This means that the rate of reaction is directly proportional to the square of the concentration of NO and the concentration of O2.


The rate constant, k, is a proportionality constant that depends on the nature of the reaction, the temperature, and the presence of a catalyst. It has a specific value for a given reaction at a given temperature. It does not depend on the concentration of reactants. The units of k vary depending on the order of reaction. For example, for a first order reaction, k has the units of s, while for a second order reaction, k has the units of L mol s.


Methods to Determine the Order of Reaction




There are two main methods to determine the order of reaction with respect to a reactant: the initial rate method and the integrated rate method.


The initial rate method involves measuring the initial rate of reaction at different concentrations of a reactant and keeping the other reactants constant. Then, a plot of log(rate) vs log(concentration) is made and the slope gives the order of reaction. For example, for the reaction:


A + B C + D


The initial rate method can be used to find the order with respect to A by varying [A] and keeping [B] constant.


The integrated rate method involves measuring the concentration of a reactant at different times during the course of a reaction and keeping the other reactants in excess. Then, a plot of concentration vs time is made and the shape of the curve gives the order of reaction. For example, for a first order reaction:


A B + C


The integrated rate method can be used to find the order with respect to A by plotting [A] vs t and getting a straight line with a negative slope.


Zero Order, First Order, and Second Order Reactions




A zero order reaction is one in which the rate of reaction is independent of the concentration of any reactant. It has a constant rate that is equal to the rate constant. The integrated rate law for a zero order reaction is:


[A] = -kt + [A]0


where [A] is the concentration of A at time t, [A]0 is the initial concentration of A, and k is is equal to the product of the collision frequency and the fraction of effective collisions. The fraction of effective collisions depends on the activation energy and the temperature, while the collision frequency depends on the concentration and the surface area of the reactants.


Conclusion




In this article, you have learned about chemical kinetics, which is the study of the rates of chemical reactions and the factors that affect them. You have learned about the following topics:


The factors affecting the